A Level Psychology

£315.00

Online Enrolment

A Level Psychology

 

Examining Board: AQA

Next Examination Period: May / June 2020

Exam Specification Code: 7182

Coursework Element: None

Practical Element: None

Course Fee Includes: Online course materials and tutor support. Additional materials available at extra cost.

Fast Track Option: Fast Track Psychology A Level

AQA A Levels are available for study anywhere in the world. Examinations must be taken in a registered UK exam centre. It is recommended students check with UK examining centres that the chosen exam is available. 

Introduction

 Oxford College offers this full ‘A’ level course in Psychology and the A level award has now been redefined as a final qualification, so no marks can be carried forward to that qualification from the separate AS award.

Before you start your studies, please take the time to read through this introductory section as it provides important background information about your studies.

The course materials are comprehensive standalone content which follow the specification closely. Most students like to have a supporting text book to draw on which provides alternative perspectives on main topics and themes; text books also follow the specification closely. If you would like to purchase a supporting text book or borrow one from your local library then simply makes sure that it covers the AQA 2015 Psychology specification. There are a range of different text books to choose from and each one is slightly different in presentation and how it is written so selection will be according to individual preference so have a look at some before deciding.

 

 

Course summary

 

This specification has been designed to provide a broad introduction to the scope and nature of psychology as a science, bringing the content up to date. The emphasis is on applying knowledge and understanding rather than just acquiring knowledge, thereby developing your transferable skills of analysis, evaluation and critical thinking.

The course also aims to help you:

  • Develop essential knowledge and understanding of different areas of the subject and how they relate to each other
  • Develop and demonstrate a deep appreciation of the skills, knowledge and understanding of scientific methods
  • Develop competence and confidence in a variety of practical, mathematical and problem-solving skills
  • Develop interest in and enthusiasm for the subject, including developing an interest in further study and careers associated with the subject
  • Understand how society makes decisions about scientific issues and how the sciences contribute to the success of the economy and society.

     

    The 2015 Psychology specification has a number of changes from the 2008 specification. One of the new requirements is that the 2015 includes a minimum of 10% of at least Level 2 (GCSE) mathematical skills as part of the overall marks.

    You will be expected to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of psychological concepts, theories, research studies, research methods and ethical issues
  • Apply psychological knowledge and understanding content in a range of contexts
  • Analyse, interpret and evaluate psychological concepts, theories, research studies and research methods
  • Evaluate therapies and treatments including in terms of their appropriateness and effectiveness.
  • Knowledge and understanding of research methods, practical research skills and mathematical skills (you can download the Mathematical requirements and exemplifications guide from www.aqa.org.uk)

     

    These skills should be developed through study of the specification content and through ethical practical research activities, involving:

  • Designing research
  • Conducting research
  • Analysing and interpreting data.

     

    In carrying out practical research activities, students will manage associated risks and use information and communication technology (ICT).

     

    Completion time

     

    You should expect to spend approximately 360 hours of study on the A level course and therefore time management skills are essential and a personal study timetable should be implemented to ensure you are fully prepared for your chosen exam date.

     

    Previous Knowledge

     

    There is no requirement to have studied psychology previously, although there is a smooth transition from GCSE psychology for those who have studied at this lower level. A pass at A-C GCSE in English is desirable, and it is suggested that students embarking on this course have achieved a GCSE in maths at the higher tier.

     

    Psychology

     


    Specification


    AQA Psychology AS (7182)
    The AS specification is examined for the first time in June 2017

     

    Assessment

     


    The course is assessed via written exams. However, assignments are included at the end of each unit to assess your progress and provide feedback. The following information contains details of all the exams for AQA ‘A’ level.

     

    Paper 1: Introductory topics in psychology

     


    2 hours written exam
    Compulsory content assessed
    33.3 % of A level
    96 marks
    Questions:
    Section A: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks
    Section B: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks
    Section C: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks
    Section D: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks

     

    Paper 2: Psychology in content

     


    2 hours written exam
    Compulsory content assessed
    33.3% of A level
    96 marks

    Questions:
    Section A: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks
    Section B: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks
    Section C: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 48 marks

     

    Paper 3: Issues and options in psychology

     


    2 hours written exam
    Compulsory content assessed
    33.3 % of A level
    96 marks
    Questions:
    Section A: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks
    Section B: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks
    (Option 1: the college offer Cognition and Development as the topic for this option)
    Section C: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks (Option 2: the college offer Stress as the topic for this option)
    Section D: multiple choice, short answer and extended writing, 24 marks (Option 3: the college offer Forensic Psychology as the topic for this option)

     

    Assessment objectives

     

    Assessment objectives (AOs) are set by Ofqual and are the same across all AS and A-level Psychology specifications and all exam boards.

    The exams will measure how students have achieved the following assessment objectives.

    AO1: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures.

    AO2: Apply knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures:

  • In a theoretical context
  • In a practical context
  • When handling qualitative data
  • When handling quantitative data.

     

    AO3: Analyse, interpret and evaluate scientific information, ideas and evidence, including in relation to issues, to:

  • Make judgements and reach conclusions
  • Develop and refine practical design and procedures You can read and download the full specification at: www.aqa.org.uk

     

     

    Tutor marked assignments (TMAs)

     

    As you progress through the course, you will be asked to complete assignments, which must be sent to your tutor for marking. The assignments in the course are designed to help you become familiar with the types of questions you will encounter in the exam. However, assignments do not need to be completed under exam conditions; you will have your notes and the course guide to help you. Be prepared to produce several drafts, examiners are not looking for literary classics, rather they are looking for well-supported logical arguments backed up by evidence from the course, which move from an introduction, to hypotheses/evidence, to a reasoned conclusion. You may be asked to: describe, discuss, criticise, compare, contrast, analyse, or consider. However, do not be tempted to answer the question you wish was there, answer the question set, and not merely write everything you know about the topic.

    Completing the assignments is a very important part of your work, and you should not view it as something separate from the rest of your course. The comments you receive from your tutor are a valuable indication of how you are progressing, and help to build up a relationship with your tutor so that they can tailor advice individually for your circumstances. In an assignment remember to include references to any work you have used in addition to the course materials. Although it is not necessary to look at materials outside the course to obtain excellent grades, it is good practice for higher-level studies.

    Throughout this course, there are a large number of studies and theories discussed, it is important that you are able to recall the facts of these studies and what theorists propose, and you will gain credit if you can recall, who and when they were carried out and what was proposed. However, marks will be gained for a sensible discussion of a range of research and theories, rather than a list of names of researchers and dates with no details of the actual studies and theories. Each unit also has a maths element which you will need to be confident with and for each unit the maths requirements are identified for you.

     

    A level unit content

     

     

    Unit 1: Social influence (compulsory content)

     

    Types of conformity: internalisation, identification and compliance. Explanations for conformity: informational social influence and normative social influence, and variables affecting conformity including group size, unanimity and task difficulty as investigated by Asch.
    Conformity to social roles as investigated by Zimbardo.
    Explanations for obedience: agentic state and legitimacy of authority, and situational variables affecting obedience including proximity, location and uniform, as investigated by Milgram.
    Dispositional explanation for obedience: the Authoritarian Personality.
    Explanations of resistance to social influence, including social support and locus of control.
    Minority influence including reference to consistency, commitment and flexibility.
    The role of social influence processes in social change. End of unit TMA

     

    Unit 2: Memory (compulsory content)

     


    The multi-store model of memory: sensory register, short-term memory and long-term memory.
    Features of each store: coding, capacity and duration.
    Types of long-term memory: episodic, semantic, procedural.
    The working memory model: central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer. Features of the model: coding and capacity.

    Explanations for forgetting: proactive and retroactive interference and retrieval failure due to absence of cues.

    Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, including leading questions and post-event discussion; anxiety. Improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview.

    End of unit TMA

     

    Unit 3: Attachment (compulsory content)

     

    Caregiver-infant interactions in humans: reciprocity and interactional synchrony. Stages of attachment identified by Schaffer. Multiple attachments and the role of the father.

    Animal studies of attachment: Lorenz and Harlow. Explanations of attachment: learning theory and Bowlby’s monotropic theory. The concepts of a critical period and an internal working model.

    Ainsworth’s ‘Strange Situation’. Types of attachment: secure, insecure-avoidant and insecure resistant.
    Cultural variations in attachment, including van Ljzendoorn.

    Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation. Romanian orphan studies: effects of institutionalisation.

    The influence of early attachment on childhood and adult relationships, including the role of an internal working model.

    End of unit TMA

     

    Unit 4: Approaches in psychology and biopsychology (compulsory content)

     

    Learning approaches: the behaviourist approach, including classical conditioning and Pavlov’s research, operant conditioning, types of reinforcement and Skinner’s research; social learning theory including imitation, identification, modelling, vicarious reinforcement, the role of meditational processes and Bandura’s research.

    The cognitive approach: the study of internal mental processes, the role of schema, the use of theoretical and computer models to explain and make inferences about mental processes. The emergence of cognitive neuroscience.

    The biological approach: the influence of genes, biological structures and neurochemistry on behaviour. Genotype and phenotype, genetic basis of behaviour, evolution and behaviour.

    The divisions of the nervous system: central and peripheral (somatic and autonomic).
    The structure and function of sensory, relay and motor neurons. The process of synaptic transmission, including reference to neurotransmitters, excitation and inhibition.
    The function of the endocrine system: glands and hormones.
    The fight or flight response including the role of adrenaline. The divisions of the nervous system: central and peripheral (somatic and autonomic).
    The structure and function of sensory, relay and motor neurons. The process of synaptic transmission, including reference to neurotransmitters, excitation and inhibition.

    Localisation of function in the brain and hemispheric lateralisation: motor, somatosensory, visual, auditory and language centres; Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, split brain research. Plasticity and functional recovery of the brain after trauma.

    Ways of studying the brain: scanning techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); electroencephalogram (EEGs) and event-related potentials (ERPs); post-mortem examinations.

    Biological rhythms: circadian, infradian and ultradian and the difference between these rhythms. The effect of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous zeitgebers on the sleep/wake cycle.

    End of unit TMA


     

    Unit 5: Psychopathology (compulsory content)

     

    Definitions of abnormality, including deviation from social norms, failure to function adequately, statistical infrequency and deviation from ideal mental health.

    The behavioural, emotional and cognitive characteristics of phobias, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).
    The behavioural approach to explaining and treating phobias: the two-process model, including classical and operant conditioning; systematic desensitisation, including relaxation and use of hierarchy; flooding.

    The cognitive approach to explaining and treating depression: Beck’s negative triad and Ellis’s ABC model; cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), including challenging irrational thoughts.

    The biological approach to explaining and treating OCD: genetic and neural explanations; drug therapy.

    End of unit TMA

     

    Unit 6: Research methods (compulsory content)

     

    Experimental method. Types of experiment, laboratory and field experiments; natural and quasi experiments.

    Observational techniques. Types of observation: naturalistic and controlled observation; covert and overt observation; participant and non-participant observation.

    Self-report techniques. Questionnaires; interviews, structured and unstructured. Correlations. Analysis of the relationship between co-variables. The difference between correlations and experiments.

    Aims: stating aims, the difference between aims and hypotheses.
    Hypotheses: directional and non-directional.
    Sampling: the difference between population and sample; sampling techniques including: random, systematic, stratified, opportunity and volunteer; implications of sampling techniques, including bias and generalisation.

    Pilot studies and the aims of piloting.
    Experimental designs: repeated measures, independent groups, matched pairs. Observational design: behavioural categories; event sampling; time sampling. Questionnaire construction, including use of open and closed questions; design of interviews.

    Variables: manipulation and control of variables, including independent, dependent, extraneous, confounding; operationalisation of variables. Control: random allocation and counterbalancing, randomisation and standardisation.

    Demand characteristics and investigator effects.

    Ethics, including the role of the British Psychological Society’s code of ethics; ethical issues in the design and conduct of psychological studies; dealing with ethical issues in research.

    The role of peer review in the scientific process.
    The implications of psychological research for the economy.

    .

    Reliability across all methods of investigation. Ways of assessing reliability: test-retest and inter observer; improving reliability.
    Types of validity across all methods of investigation: face validity, concurrent validity, ecological validity and temporal validity. Assessment of validity. Improving validity.
    Features of science: objectivity and the empirical method; replicability and falsifiability; theory construction and hypothesis testing; paradigms and paradigm shifts.
    Reporting psychological investigations. Sections of a scientific report: abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion and referencing.

    Quantitative and qualitative data; the distinction between qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques.

    Primary and secondary data, including meta-analysis.

    Descriptive statistics: measures of central tendency – mean, median, mode; calculation of mean, median and mode; measures of dispersion; range and standard deviation; calculation of range; calculation of percentages; positive, negative and zero correlations.
    Presentation and display of quantitative data: graphs, tables, scattergrams, bar charts.
    Distributions: normal and skewed distributions; characteristics of normal and skewed distributions.
    Introduction to statistical testing; the sign test

    End of unit TMA

     

    Unit 7: Issues and debates in psychology (compulsory content)

     


    Gender and culture in psychology – universality and bias. Gender bias including androcentrism and alpha and beta bias; cultural bias, including ethnocentrism and cultural relativism.
    Free will and determinism: hard determinism and soft determinism; biological, environmental and psychic determinism. The scientific emphasis on causal explanations.

    The nature-nurture debate: the relative importance of heredity and environment in determining behaviour; the interactionist approach.

    Holism and reductionism: levels of explanation in psychology. Biological reductionism and environmental (stimulus-response) reductionism.

    Idiographic and nomothetic approaches to psychological investigation.

    Ethical implications of research studies and theory, including reference to social sensitivity.

    End of unit TMA

     

    Unit 8: Cognition and development (Option 1)

     

    Piaget’s theory of cognitive development: schemas, assimilation, accommodation, equilibration, stages of intellectual development. Characteristics of these stages, including object permanence, conservation, egocentrism and class inclusion.

    Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development, including the zone of proximal development and scaffolding.

    Baillargeon’s explanation of early infant abilities, including knowledge of the physical world; violation of expectation research.

    The development of social cognition: Selman’s levels of perspective-taking; theory of mind, including theory of mind as an explanation for autism; the Sally-Anne study.

    The role of the mirror neuron system in social cognition.

    End of unit TMA

     

    Unit 9: Stress (Option 2)

     

    The physiology of stress, including general adaptation syndrome, the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal system, the sympathomedullary pathway and the role of cortisol.

    The role of stress in illness, including reference to immunosuppression and cardiovascular disorders.

    Sources of stress: life changes and daily hassles. Workplace stress, including the effects of workload and control.

    Measuring stress: self-report scales (Social Readjustment Ratings Scale and Hassles and Uplifts Scale) and physiological measures, including skin conductance response.

    Individual differences in stress: personality types A, B and C and associated behaviours; hardiness, including commitment, challenge and control.

    Managing and coping with stress: drug therapy (benzodiazepines, beta blockers), stress inoculation therapy and biofeedback. Gender differences in coping with stress.

    The role of social support in coping with stress; types of social support, including instrumental, emotional and esteem support.

     

    Unit 10: Forensic psychology (Option 3)

     

    Problems in defining crime. Ways of measuring crime, including official statistics, victim surveys and offender surveys.

    Offender profiling: the top-down approach, including organised and disorganised types of offender; the bottom-up approach, including investigative Psychology; geographical profiling.

    Biological explanations of offending behaviour: an historical approach (atavistic form); genetics and neural explanations.

    Psychological explanations of offending behaviour: Eysenck’s theory of the criminal personality; cognitive explanations; level of moral reasoning and cognitive distortions, including hostile attribution bias and minimalisation; differential association theory; psychodynamic explanations.

    Dealing with offending behaviour: the aims of custodial sentencing and the psychological effects of custodial sentencing. Recidivism. Behaviour modification in custody. Anger management and restorative justice programmes.

    End of unit TMA.

What's Included

Online learning materials, online resources, and full tutor support for two years upon signing our Terms and Conditions agreement.

Entry Requirements

Although the A-Level programmes build on the course content of GCSE, it is not necessary to have this qualification before undertaking an A-Level. However, in order to meet the demands of the course, it is recommended that candidates have literacy and communication skills equivalent to C or higher at GCSE. Please note that full tutor support is still provided throughout your course duration.

The format of the Examinations

PLEASE NOTE: All exams are held during the May - June exam period of every year.

International Students

If you are based outside the UK, it may be possible to sit your examination through your local British Council, depending on your location.

Further Information

Your course is delivered online via the Oxford Learning On Campus website.

After enrolling online, you will receive a username and password to access the On Campus area. This is delivered within a few moments and three-working days.

Students are required to arrange and pay for their examinations and manage the course work element if the subject requires this. Students must check the relevant examination board website for further information and final examination sitting dates for the specification.

Materials and support provided by Oxford Learning.Oxford Learning

Our A-Level programmes are eligible for UCAS points, making them a great choice for students aiming to progress to University. UCAS points are awarded according to the grade earned, please see below for details.

A levels are also widely recognised by employers and are useful for students looking to progress their careers or meet requirements for promotion.

UCAS Points Table
A* = 56
A = 48
B = 40
C = 32
D = 24
E = 16

Course Fee

£315.00

Payment by Instalments

Students are able to pay course fees in monthly instalments. Click here to download our instalment plan.

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